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Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a parasite and spread by the bite of infected sand flies. It is found throughout tropical areas worldwide, including Southwest Asia. There are several different forms of leishmaniasis. Most common is the skin form (cutaneous leishmaniasis), which causes scarring skin sores. The internal form (visceral leishmaniasis) affects internal organs and is the most serious form.

Sandflies that transmit leishmaniasis in Southwest Asia are active from March through November. Sandflies bite at any time, but they prefer to bite at night. Although it is not possible to prevent all sandfly bites, Service members can do much to protect themselves by limiting opportunities that sand flies have to bite exposed skin. While effective treatment is available, prevention remains the best option.

Below, we have provided information on leishmaniasis including clinical guidance, policies and directives, training material, and other resources, to assist healthcare providers and Service members and their families.

Table of Contents

Policies and Directives

DoD / Joint Forces


Air Force

Navy / Marines

VA (Veterans Administration)

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Clinical Guidance

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Forms and Measures

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Fact Sheets

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Other Related Information

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Education and Training

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